Big Things Come in Small Climates

Imagine a mountain overlooking a grassy plain. As rising temperatures and other impacts attributed to climate change take hold, the plants and animals covering its slopes are dying off. Birds and small mammals are migrating toward higher elevations in search of cooler climates — all except in a tiny patch of land at the base of the mountain, where these species are mysteriously continuing to thrive.

tree in field, Cambodia

Lone tree on a hilltop in Cambodia. (© Conservation International/photo by Sopha Sett)

Why? This is what we’re trying to figure out, to see if it may give us clues for how species — and humanity itself — can adapt to climate change.

Extinction risk from climate change may be determined by patches of habitat so small that scientists have overlooked them for decades. A few trees clinging to a cool hillslope or a patch of grass riding out a dry spell near a spring may make all the difference in how vegetation — and the animals that depend on it — survive climate change.

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Indigenous Knowledge Could Help Rescue New Caledonia’s ‘Millennium Trees’

In the southwest Pacific Ocean, on the archipelago of New Caledonia, atop the highest mountain of the main island, lives an ancient tree species that embodies the spirits of the island’s indigenous ancestors.

kauri tree monitoring team on Mt. Panié, New Caledonia

The tree monitoring team at the foot of a Mount Panié kauri tree in New Caledonia. (© Conservation International/photo by Nicolas Texier)

Commonly called the Mount Panié kauri (Agathis montana), this huge, magnificent conifer lives well over 1,000 years; local indigenous Kanak people call it dayu biik after its capacity to resist cyclones and other natural disasters.

But recent observation and studies indicates that these unique trees are disappearing, posing a major threat to the ecosystems and culture tied to them. Last week, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) updated the tree’s status on its Red List of Threatened Species from Near Threatened to Critically Endangered — the last stage before extinction. Continue reading

Small Islands, Giant Oceans: Q&A with President Tong of the Republic of Kiribati

This morning at the “Our Ocean” Conference, currently being hosted by the U.S. State Department, President Anote Tong of Kiribati announced that starting next year, the Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA) will be completely closed to commercial fishing — a monumental development that aims to regenerate a species-rich area of ocean the size of California. President Tong recently sat down with us to discuss this announcement; here’s an excerpt from the interview.  

President Anote Tong of Kiribati

President Anote Tong of the Republic of Kiribati. (© Conservation International/photo by Toby de Jong)

Q: What will happen with the Phoenix Islands Protected Area on January 1, 2015?

A: At the beginning of next year, the Phoenix Islands Protected Area — over 400,000 square kilometers [154,000 square miles] — will be closed to all commercial fishing activity.

Q: Why did the government of Kiribati decide to increase the percent of the PIPA that is closed to commercial fishing?

A: We have always intended to close off the whole of the PIPA … what we needed was time to put it into place. We have a number of partners that fish in our waters; the Japanese, the South Koreans, the Taiwanese, the Spanish, even the United States has quite a number of fishing vessels operating there. What we needed, and what they needed, was time to restructure and to reorganize their activities and accept the reality that the PIPA would no longer be available for them to fish in.

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How I Rediscovered the World Cup Mascot in the Wild

Today, the 2014 FIFA World Cup begins in Brazil. Thirty-two national squads will dispute who has the best football on the planet, as billions of people look on. No other sport or event mobilizes the energy, hearts and souls of so many people at once.

Brazilian three-banded armadillo

Brazilian three-banded armadillo. (© Liana Sena /Associação Caatinga)

At the very core of this event is its mascot, a Brazilian three-banded armadillo named Fuleco whose name is a combination of the Portuguese words futebol (football) and ecologia (ecology). I know this species quite well — in fact, I rediscovered it in the wild.

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A Harrowing Journey in Search of Climate Clues

I remember the pitch from the producers: I would accompany, on horse and foot, a team of climate scientists to the Andes to film a segment for “Years of Living Dangerously,” Showtime’s ground-breaking series on climate change.

Paul Mayewski, Sanjayan in Andes

Paul Mayewski and Sanjayan filming “Years of Living Dangerously” in the Andes. (© The Years Project/SHOWTIME)

Sitting in a sunny office in New York City with the executive producers, we watched clips of Dr. Paul Mayewski, a genial yet distinguished “ice scientist” from the University of Maine who would serve as our expedition leader. Frankly, the whole storyline sounded rather tame — even a bit predictable.

Yet as viewers will see tonight on the season finale (see preview below), the expedition was anything but.

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Visiting the World’s Only Underwater Research Station

The sun was burning hot and high in the sky above the Florida Keys as we cruised across the aquamarine waters off the Gulf Coast. I could think of no better place to be today, June 8th: World Oceans Day.

Greg Stone underwater

Greg Stone in the Aquarius, the world’s only underwater research station. (© Brian Skerry)

It was a trip I had made before, but for my companion on this trip to the Aquarius underwater habitat — actor, philanthropist and friend Ian Somerhalder — it was his first time. As I stood on the bow of our boat, my whole body was filled with the ocean breeze; I could smell the lovely salt in the sharp fragrance of the sea.

Soon we arrived at the Aquarius, the world’s only underwater research station. Imagine something akin to the International Space Station, but located about 63 feet [19.2 meters] beneath the ocean surface. We were here to dive and pay a visit to Fabien Cousteau.

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The Guardians of Raja Ampat: Community-Driven Conservation in Indonesia

This is a guest post co-authored by Shawn Heinrichs and John Weller, two critically-acclaimed photographers, filmmakers and marine conservationists who are producing the film “Guardians of Raja Ampat” in conjunction with CI. The teaser for the film is below.

Lush vegetation clung to all but the steepest slopes of the towering islands. Their near-vertical walls hung over the sea, which had undercut the razor-sharp honeycombs of eroding rock. It was as if the spectacular bullet-shaped islands had erupted out of the bay and frozen in time, hovering just above the surface. The landscape eluded words.

Shawn Heinrichs and colleagues, Wayag Bay, Raja Ampat

Shawn poses with Ronald, Abam and George from CI’s monitoring team overlooking Indonesia’s Raja Ampat archipelago. (© Shawn Heinrichs for Conservation International)

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Small Farms, Large Stakes: Climate Change and Smallholder Farmers

Growing up in England, I never imagined that I would someday develop a passion for working with smallholder farmers and biodiversity conservation in tropical countries. Yet both my professional and personal lives have become intertwined with these issues, and now I can’t imagine doing anything else.

Farmer in Tanzania. Smallholder farmers are estimated to represent 85% of the world's farms and provide over 80% of the food consumed in the developing world. (© Benjamin Drummond)

Farmer in Tanzania. Smallholder farmers are estimated to represent 85% of the world’s farms and provide over 80% of the food consumed in the developing world. (© Benjamin Drummond)

As a scientist with CI, I conduct research on agricultural practices and approaches that can help ensure farm productivity, improve farmer livelihoods and conserve biodiversity; participate in related technical expert groups and consortia (such as the Landscapes for People, Food and Nature Initiative); and work with our field programs to promote climate-smart, biodiversity-friendly landscapes across the tropics.

On a personal level, I am married to the son of a Costa Rican campesino (farmer), live on a small farm in rural Santa Elena (Costa Rica) and am surrounded by many in-laws, friends and neighbors who are small coffee or dairy farmers.

For me, the impacts of climate change on smallholder farmers are therefore visible on a daily basis. When the rains come late and temperatures soar above normal, I can see from my window that my father-in-law’s maize field is withering, and know that other families will also suffer both the loss of important food crops and potential income.

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Filming in Cambodia, Part 3: Fishing at Sunrise

This is the third post in a three-part series documenting CI’s visual storytelling team’s recent trip to Cambodia. Read the previous posts. 

filming fishing at sunrise, Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

CI’s visual storytelling team films fisherman Mao as he paddles out to check his nets at sunrise. (© Conservation International/photo by Molly Bergen)

The next morning we rose even earlier. The team would be filming Sophy’s husband, Mao, as he did his morning check of the family’s fishing nets.

Mao sat at the very front of his rough-hewn wooden boat, paddling it with one oar. We followed in two motorboats. One carried John with the camera, Becca with the sound equipment and Nara, along with the boat driver. Peter, Sokrith and I took the other boat, making sure to stay out of the shot of John’s camera. Continue reading

Filming in Cambodia, Part 2: Why It’s Hard to Film in a Floating House

This is the second post in a three-part series documenting CI’s visual storytelling team’s recent trip to Cambodia. Read the previous post.

filming from boat, Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

CI’s visual storytelling team heads off for a day of filming on Cambodia’s Tonle Sap Lake. (© Conservation International/photo by Molly Bergen)

We all rose before sunrise — easy to do when you turn in at 8 p.m. Lights were already blinking on in the floating homes nearby.

Over a breakfast of fish, pork ribs, eggs, rice and instant coffee, the visual storytelling team met in a corner of the floating office to discuss priority shots for the day. We would only have three full days of filming here on Tonle Sap Lake, so we needed to make the most of it. Continue reading