In a career full of fish discoveries, these 5 species stand out

tubeworm dwarfgoby (Sueviota tubicola)

The tubeworm dwarfgoby (Sueviota tubicola), Mark Erdmann’s 100th new fish species description, resides in Papua New Guinea’s Milne Bay. (© Conservation International/photo by Mark Erdmann)

The recent publication highlighting the discovery of a new reef fish in Papua New Guinea called the tubeworm dwarfgoby (Sueviota tubicola) marked an important milestone in my career: my 100th description of a new fish species, all completed during my 13 years at Conservation International (CI). (If you include the species I have both discovered and described, the number increases to over 150.)

Among those 100 fish that I have introduced to the scientific community, here are five of my favorites.

  1. The tilefish with the vanishing stripes
A species of tilefish (Hoplolatilus erdmanni) discovered by Mark Erdmann in Indonesia's Bird's Head region

A species of tilefish (Hoplolatilus erdmanni) discovered by Mark Erdmann in Indonesia’s Bird’s Head region. (© Gerald Allen)

During our first marine rapid assessment of Indonesia’s Kaimana coastline in the southern Bird’s Head region, I found a beautiful tilefish on a deep 70-meter (230-foot) dive. This striking fish builds large communal mounds of rubble that cover its labyrinthine burrows beneath. It bears a striking resemblance to another tilefish that my fellow scientist Dr. Gerry Allen and I had described, differing only in the presence of tiger stripes on its body.

When I first encountered this fish, I had very limited time to safely stay at this depth, and I had to choose between photographing and collecting the fish. I decided to collect it, but by the time I emerged from my very long dive, the specimen had died, and its stripes disappeared! Gerry was underwhelmed and reckoned I had hallucinated the stripes on the fish. This meant I had to do yet another very deep dive — this time as the sun was going down, and our survey time running out — to properly photograph the live fish in its natural habitat. I managed to find another mound and photograph the elusive tiger pattern, and Gerry decided on the spot to name the new species after me.

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What we’re reading: Water and climate change edition

Bolivia snow melt

La Paz, Bolivia depends on glacial melt for its freshwater supply. But climate change is causing the Andean glaciers to disappear, leaving residents without a vital resource. (© Conservation International/photo by John Martin)

Editor’s note: News about conservation and the environment is made every day, but some of it can fly under the radar. In this occasional series, Human Nature shares three recent stories of interest in our world. 

  1. La Paz adapts to a world without water

The story: La Paz, Bolivia, is feeling the heat of climate change. Situated in the “high tropics” zone, La Paz relies on two main sources for its water: nearby glaciers and seasonal rains that replenish the city’s reservoirs. The glaciers have all but dried up, and the rains aren’t coming, prompting the government to suddenly cut water to about half of its 800,000 residents last October.

As Popular Science reports, the situation in La Paz likely could have been prevented: “For years, scientists predicted that climate change would cause a devastating water shortage in the Andean plain.” NGOs pleaded for better water management strategies while an important lake dried up and winter rains decreased by 25 percent. Yet when a local professor warned the government in 2005, no action was taken.

What’s next: La Paz’s waterless future may already be set: “[B]ecause of Bolivia’s location and elevation, the Andean nation is experiencing the impact of … [its] carbon emissions at a far more accelerated pace than the U.S.” the professor, Edson Ramirez, said.

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To save Hawaiian fisheries, scientists look to locals for answers

fisher in Hawaii

In many coastal Hawaiian towns, small-scale fishers have a more thorough knowledge of the health of local fish populations than scientists do. (© Troy K Shinn/ www.troyshinn.com)

Editor’s note: The world’s fisheries are in decline just as demand for seafood is rising. To restore and protect the overtaxed fisheries that 3 billion people depend on for their main source of protein, two new research papers propose that the scientific community must turn to the traditional knowledge and observation skills of local fishers.  

As the science adviser for Conservation International (CI) Hawai‘i, Eva Schemmel, lead author of the two studies, noticed that the state of Hawai‘i lacked the fish reproduction data necessary to effectively manage local fish populations sustainably. When she started visiting communities, however, she found well-informed people ready to get to work. We sat down with Schemmel to discuss her findings.

Question: How can communities help the state of Hawai‘i make its fisheries more sustainable?

Answer: In creating effective rules and regulations for maintaining small-scale or “coastal community” fisheries, there are two commonly used practices worldwide: setting size limits for catch, and closing down areas of the fishery during spawning. It’s important to allow fish to spawn at least once so they can replace themselves. But catch size limits should also be capped on the upper end: Bigger fish spawn more and have [healthier] offspring, so protecting them can have a big impact on overall fish numbers. Fishing for species while they are aggregating and spawning, which happens at certain locations and times of the year depending on the species, can quickly deplete fish populations, which is why closed seasons are important.

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‘Aha’ moment: A missing link in an island forest

Primatology students hike to their research site on Ometepe Island, Nicaragua

Primatology students hike to their research site on Ometepe Island, Nicaragua. (© Molly Bergen)

Editor’s note: In honor of Conservation International’s 30th anniversary, this is the first post in an occasional series called “‘Aha’ moment,” in which Conservation International staff reflect on moments of insight or discovery that paved the way for their careers in conservation. In this piece, blog editor Molly Bergen kicks off the series with a story about how a brief academic detour in primatology led her to rekindle her interest in the monkeys’ human cousins.

If howler monkeys had more interesting social lives, things might have turned out differently.

I was halfway through a two-week field course on primate behavior on Ometepe Island, whose two forest-and farm-draped volcanoes emerge from the middle of freshwater-shark-filled Lake Nicaragua. At the moment, I was searching through the field station’s “library,” in this case a musty trunk full of yellowed scientific papers stored in a dark, cobwebbed closet.

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Mud, parrots and parasites: Filming the rainforest in virtual reality

crew carry anaconda filmed for CI's new virtual reality film in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador

In September 2016, a VR crew shot Conservation International’s second virtual reality film, “Under the Canopy” in the Amazon region. Here, CI’s John Martin (right) and a fellow crew member carry an anaconda that was filmed in Ecuador’s Yasuni National Park. (© Lucas Bustamante)

As part of the film crew for “Under the Canopy,” Conservation International’s (CI) second virtual reality experience, last September I joined fellow CI staff and a team from co-producers Jaunt VR on a 26-day expedition to two of the most pristine areas of Amazonia: southern Suriname and Ecuador’s Yasuní National Park.

In years of traveling around the world, it has become a tradition for me to come up with a list of my “top five” and “bottom five” moments of each trip — the experiences that stay with me long after I’ve returned home. Here are my most memorable moments from this Amazonia expedition — starting with the worst. Continue reading

What we’re reading: Dangers of the pet trade, hope for the Arctic

Emerald tree boa coiled in a tree in southern Guyana's Konashen Community-Owned Conservation Area

Emerald tree boa coiled in a tree in southern Guyana’s Konashen Community-Owned Conservation Area. Demand for certain species as pets, particularly reptiles, is so high that it has driven several to extinction in the wild. (© Piotr Naskrecki)

Editor’s note: News about conservation and the environment is made every day, but some of it can fly under the radar. In this occasional series, Human Nature shares three recent stories of interest in our world. 

  1. How the pet trade is killing off animal species

The story: Despite claims of captive breeding, research shows that the vast majority of animals imported for zoos and pet stores are caught in the wild. As global attention has been focused on the impacts of the illegal trade of iconic species such as elephants, tigers and rhinos, the negative impact of the pet trade has remained largely out of the spotlight. According to an article in U.S. News, “92 percent of the 500,000 live animal shipments between 2000-2006 to the United States (that’s 1,480,000,000 animals) were for the pet trade, and 69 percent of these originated in Southeast Asia.” Many of them were illegally caught and then, according to the wildlife trade monitoring network TRAFFIC, “laundered to appear legal.”

What’s next: Demand for certain species as pets, particularly reptiles, is so high that it has driven several to extinction in the wild. Birds, fish, orchids — even primates are being illegally traded internationally, particularly troubling in light of new research showing primates face a greater threat of extinction than any other large mammal group. Numerous roadblocks hamper efforts to stem the illegal pet trade: incomplete classifications (legal to trade vs. illegal, etc.); a lack of communication and consensus among nations; and weak monitoring and enforcement. Continue reading

Indigenous-led conservation takes center stage in ‘Under the Canopy’

Kamanja Penashekung, an indigenous man who stars in CI's latest VR film, "Under the Canopy," stands on the bank of Suriname's Sipaliwini River at the edge of the Trio village of Kwamalasamutu.

Kamanja Penashekung, an indigenous man who stars in CI’s latest VR film, “Under the Canopy,” stands on the bank of Suriname’s Sipaliwini River at the edge of the Trio village of Kwamalasamutu. (© Conservation International/photo by John Martin)

Editor’s note: Through the groundbreaking medium of virtual reality, Conservation International (CI) is spreading awareness of the plight of the world’s most stunning and vital ecosystems as never before. Last year, CI took viewers underwater in Indonesia’s Bird’s Head region with “Valen’s Reef.” This week, CI brings viewers into the forest with the launch of its second film, “Under the Canopy.

Leaves rustle from unseen creatures as you descend into the lush darkness below. Dappled sunlight breaks through the dense canopy, as the drone of insects reminds you of the life found on every branch. A figure approaches along a well-worn path, with wisdom to guide you through the fronds.

This is Amazonia, brought to you through the art of virtual reality.

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Primates face greater extinction threat than any other large mammal group

Common squirrel monkey

Primates such as this common squirrel monkey in Amazonia are severely threatened by the destruction of tropical forests. (© Nick Fox)

New research paints a dark picture for the future of non-human primates: 63 percent of the world’s primate species are currently threatened with extinction.

The paper, which was published in Science Advances and included Conservation International Executive Vice Chair Russ Mittermeier and Senior Research Scientist Anthony Rylands as coauthors, listed the destruction of tropical forests as the main threat to primates, 90 percent of which live in this biome.

But as Mittermeier and Rylands wrote in this op-ed on Mongabay, there is reason for hope. The world did not lose a single primate species or subspecies in the 20th century — and reversing trends in species numbers is possible.

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MIT, CI scientists ‘hack’ climate solutions

Mangroves

By integrating the power of nature and technology, researchers can maximize their chances of solving problems such as climate change. For example, technological advancements could bring more accurate measurement of the coastal protection benefits of mangroves. (© Jeff Yonover)

On the seventh floor of a conference center in Cambridge, Mass., last Friday, a group of scientists and engineers huddled around tables, tapping on their laptops and sketching on poster paper, barely looking up to take in the Boston skyline.

The term “hackathon” — an event in which a group of people collaborate on computer programming — usually evokes an image of college students coding into the early hours of the morning to prototype apps that make it easier to find a parking spot or coordinate a game of soccer. The Hackathon for Climate — the second one for Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)’s Environmental Solutions Initiative but the first to include Conservation International (CI) — had a different feel.

“The day is about informed speculation towards solutions,” said John Fernández, director of the Environmental Solutions Initiative, as he introduced the Hackathon. The topics to be discussed ranged from reducing the environmental impacts of mining to shrinking the carbon footprint of digital data storage.

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Aboard a Hawaiian sailboat, new insights into root of ocean’s problems

The Hōkūleʻa and her sister vessel Hikianalia

The Hōkūleʻa and her sister vessel Hikianalia arrive in Apia, Samoa on a 2014 voyage. (© US Embassy/Flickr Creative Commons)

A version of this post was originally published on the Hōkūleʻa Crew blog.

The smell of bacon and butter greeted me this morning as I emerged from the makeshift cabin that we are each extremely fortunate to call home when aboard Hōkūleʻa. Those on the 6-to-10 watch were at the sweep adeptly steering the Hōkūleʻa in a SSW direction, guided by Mark Ellis, one of the navigators on board.

He estimated that we had traveled approximately 125 miles overnight since leaving port in Balboa. I had been on the earlier 10-to-2 watch crew, lucky to steer during a clear, star-filled night with the north star at our stern and the half-moon on our port side to guide us through most of our shift. The morning crew had to steer with clouds, inconsistent wind and no land to guide their way. They were relying on a rising sun and setting moon, neither of which are the most accurate indicators as they move overhead. When I finished my watch, the sun was rising, the clouds kept changing and the wind kept shifting. Steering was much trickier than it had been the night before with a reliable northern star.

Aulani Wilhelm steering the Hokulea while seas are calm.

Aulani Wilhelm steering the Hōkūleʻa while seas are calm. (© Conservation International)

The deep blue-green waters of Panama continue to carry us toward Malpelo, a tiny volcanic island offshore of Colombia, which we hope to reach in two days. We are privileged to be sailing in a geography referred to as the Eastern Tropical Pacific Seascape (ETPS), an area covering 750,000 square miles across the marine domains of four countries: Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Ecuador.

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