Humane Predator Control Methods Double Income for South African Farmers

Two years ago, father and son team Gawie and Charles Schreuder were considering leaving Pendoringkraal, their 200-year-old family farm situated high in the Kamiesberg Mountains of Namaqualand, South Africa. As sheep farmers they just couldn’t continue a profitable farming operation while losing 60% of their livestock to predators.

sheep farmer in South Africa

Sheep farmer Gawie Schreuder on his farm in South Africa’s Kamiesberg Mountains.(© CSA/Green Renaissance)

When I first met the Schreuder family in 2008, I was welcomed into their warm, cosy kitchen to discuss Conservation South Africa’s Biodiversity and Red Meat Initiative. I remember Gawie saying, “I love this farm, and I’ll do anything to be able to stay here, but right now I just do not see a way out.”

As a sheep farmer’s daughter, I knew exactly how he felt. My own father was an eco-conscious farmer who under-utilized his land in order to avoid degrading it. This was back in the 1980s, before the benefits of modern technology; as a result, he eventually lost his farm. The Schreuders are no different from my dad; they have the same emotional attachment to the land that goes far beyond making money.

To assess the scale of the problem, I did some research and came across some data that makes for depressing reading.

According to a recent study, predation of sheep and goats by medium-sized predators costs R1.3 billion (more than US$ 146 million) per year, with the Northern Cape Province — where the Schreuder farm is located — accounting for more than 42% of these losses. This number is only the direct cost of predation; it does not take into account the additional cost of predator control. When I read these numbers, my sympathies only strengthened for the Schreuder family; losing 60% of their stock means losing 60% of their income.

In an attempt to keep predators like the black-backed jackal, leopard and caracal away from their livestock, some farmers shoot predators to protect their animals. The Schreuders used to set lethal gin traps. The indiscriminate traps resulted in mass graves of harmless animals like black eagles, tortoises and hares.

Charles’ distress was clear: “I loathe using gin traps. I’m sick and tired of having to kill animals. I’ve always felt that there is room on this farm for all creatures, but with the mess we are in, we have no choice.”

sheep with protective collar to deter predators

Sheep wearing a metal collar that protects it from predation by felines like the caracal, which kill by grabbing their prey by the neck. Use of this collar has helped the Schreuders reduce their livestock loss by two-thirds. (© CSA/Green Renaissance)

Conservation South Africa (CSA) and Charles worked long and hard to find a solution — and find one we did. After a few visits, Charles and his family signed a conservation stewardship agreement with CSA, agreeing to try new methods of dissuading predators.

As part of the agreement, the Schreuders agreed to stop all lethal predator control and were supplied with protective collars for their sheep. These steel collars prevent feline predators like caracals from biting sheep by the throat, which is their method for killing prey. These collars were tested during the lambing season, when predator activity was at its highest. As part of our commitment to this experiment, CSA compensated Charles for livestock losses to predators over the test period.

The results were immediate. During that first season, the Schreuders’ losses were reduced by two-thirds. Gawie is an avid inventor, and when the steel collars were found to be hurting the animals, Gawie didn’t let this stop him. Instead, he holed himself up in his workshop and emerged with an improved version that no longer caused discomfort to his stock.

In addition to these collars, Charles and his father also tested a radio collar that emits an ultrasonic sound when the animal is in distress. This sound is unpleasant to the predator but inaudible to the stock.

sheep farmer in South Africa

Gawie Schreuder on his farm. The Schreuders and other families in the Namaqualand region recently signed a conservation agreement with the Northern Cape Department of Environment. (© CSA/Green Renaissance)

These two types of livestock collars have turned everything around for the Schreuders. In Charles’ words, “We went from losing R50,000 per year and having only 40% of our lamb harvest to sell to now taking 80% of our lambs to market. Our neighbouring farmers used to laugh at us for fitting these collars to the sheep, but these days we are the ones who are laughing — all the way to the bank. When I come across leopard spoor these days, it’s a good feeling to know I’m doing my part for biodiversity conservation while still running our family business.”

In 2012, Charles and Gawie Schreuder led the way in their community by formally committing their farm to a binding conservation agreement with the Northern Cape Department of Environment. This agreement — also signed by neighbouring farms — has formally created a new 11,000-hectare (27,000-acre) conservation area that will protect many plant and animal species found nowhere else on Earth.

Malinda Gardiner is the communications coordinator for Conservation South Africa’s Namaqualand Green Economy Demonstration. Learn about other non-lethal predator control method being implemented in the region: the use of guard dogs.


    1. Malinda Gardiner says

      Hi Victor

      I asked Charles what the reasons for the 20% loss in lambs they still experienced was and how he explained it, was that there are several reasons. He says 5% of the lamb harvest that is loss can be ascribed to extreme cold, disease or stillborn lambs. The ewes freerange and lamb in the veld – about a week after this they are brought to the kraal and the collars fitted – in this window period predators get some of them, when they are not wearing collars. The rest are caught by leopard, as the leopard breaks their back by swatting it or clamps down behind the collar on the shoulder, with the same result. According to Charles, the leopard tries this with the big ewes as well, and they see it when they have the sheep in the kraal – the bite marks on the sheeps’ shoulders form abscesses, but the ewes are big enough to survive the attack and so Charles and his dad treats the abscesses and they recover. I hope this has answered your question, but please feel free to ask if there is any more information you need.

  1. Linda foss says

    I’m glad they are convincing farmers to do this, but I have to make this little criticism. I heard of sheep farmers putting similar collars on the guard and herding dogs years ago. Why would it take so long to come up with the idea to put them on the sheep?

  2. Malinda Gardiner says

    Hi Linda

    Namaqualand is in many ways isolated and information is often slow in reaching farmers. Apart from this farmers are skeptical about new methods that have not been proven before. They are reluctant to invest money in new methods unless they know its been tried and tested and this is what we are doing with this project – testing it in the field, thanks to the willingness of the Schreuders – and using the testimony from the farmer to encourage other farmers to take up these methods. In the end, another farmer’s word carries the most weight with farmers. So yes, the different methods have been available for some time, but in Namaqualand no one was going to try them until we could prove that they work.

  3. gaillard says

    Hi all,
    Would it be possible to get more feedback aboutthe experience of using such collars? This initiative is actually tested in France and Switzerland against wolf attack and I would also like to test it out in French Guinea to limit depredation from jaguar and puma on sheep and calves.

    Information sharing is indeed spread out and I am working on the elaboration of the first international platform to allow anyone to share their feedback about local initiatives to cope with Human – wildlife interactions. See here for further details ( or here (

    All the best

    1. Human Nature team says


      Thank you for your comment. The project was a long time ago, but at that time, the feedback we got from the farmer is that the collars work well, but initially the design was uncomfortable to the animals. The farmer was also an inventor with some patents to his name, and very handy, so he adapted the clip of the collar and then they worked quite well. However, after some time, predators such as caracal and leopard learned to bite the sheep on the back and break its back. This happened only a couple of times though, so they were viewed overall as a success. This study did not look at their use against the hunting methods of pumas and jaguars, and they won’t be able to kill the sheep by biting the jugular, but they could learn to break their backs, as the caracal and leopard here. The collars were only tested on small livestock (sheep and goats), so their use for calves is also unknown at this time.

      Human Nature team

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